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Foreign Exchange Hedging Policy – Types of Foreign Currency Hedging Vehicles

Foreign Exchange Hedging Policy – Types of Foreign Currency Hedging Vehicles

Foreign Exchange Hedging Policy

The following are some of the most common types of foreign currency hedging vehicles used in today’s markets as a foreign currency hedge. While retail forex traders typically use foreign currency options as a hedging vehicle. Banks and commercials are more likely to use options, swaps, swaptions and other more complex derivatives to meet their specific hedging needs. Foreign Exchange Hedging Policy

Spot Contracts – A foreign currency contract to buy or sell at the current foreign currency rate, requiring settlement within two days.

As a foreign currency hedging vehicle, due to the short-term settlement date, spot contracts are not appropriate for many foreign currency hedging and trading strategies.

Foreign currency spot contracts are more commonly used in combination with other types of foreign currency hedging vehicles when implementing a foreign currency hedging strategy.

For retail investors, in particular, the spot contract and its associated risk are often the underlying reason that a foreign currency hedge must be placed. The spot contract is more often a part of the reason to hedge foreign currency risk exposure rather than the foreign currency hedging solution.

Forward Contracts – A foreign currency contract to buy or sell a foreign currency at a fixed rate for delivery on a specified future date or period.

Foreign currency forward contracts are used as a foreign currency hedge when an investor has an obligation to either make or take a foreign currency payment at some point in the future. If the date of the foreign currency payment and the last trading date of the foreign currency forwards contract are matched up, the investor has in effect “locked in” the exchange rate payment amount.

* Important: Please note that forwards contracts are different than futures contracts. Foreign currency futures contracts have standard contract sizes, time periods, settlement procedures and are traded on regulated exchanges throughout the world. Foreign currency forwards contracts may have different contract sizes, time periods and settlement procedures than futures contracts. Foreign currency forwards contracts are considered over-the-counter (OTC) due to the fact that there is no centralized trading location and transactions are conducted directly between parties via telephone and online trading platforms at thousands of locations worldwide. Foreign Exchange Hedging Policy

Foreign Currency Options – A financial foreign currency contract giving the buyer the right, but not the obligation, to purchase or sell a specific foreign currency contract (the underlying) at a specific price (the strike price) on or before a specific date (the expiration date). The amount the foreign currency option buyer pays to the foreign currency option seller for the foreign currency option contract rights is called the option “premium.”

A foreign currency option can be used as a foreign currency hedge for an open position in the foreign currency spot market. Foreign currency options can also be used in combination with other foreign currency spot and options contracts to create more complex foreign currency hedging strategies. There are many different foreign currency option strategies available to both commercial and retail investors.

Interest Rate Options – A financial interest rate contract giving the buyer the right, but not the obligation, to purchase or sell a specific interest rate contract (the underlying) at a specific price (the strike price) on or before a specific date (the expiration date). The amount the interest rate option buyer pays to the interest rate option seller for the foreign currency option contract rights is called the option “premium.” Interest rate option contracts are more often used by interest rate speculators, commercials and banks rather than by retail forex traders as a foreign currency hedging vehicle.

Foreign Currency Swaps – A financial foreign currency contract whereby the buyer and seller exchange equal initial principal amounts of two different currencies at the spot rate. The buyer and seller exchange fixed or floating rate interest payments in their respective swapped currencies over the term of the contract. At maturity, the principal amount is effectively re-swapped at a predetermined exchange rate so that the parties end up with their original currencies. Foreign currency swaps are more often used by commercials as a foreign currency hedging vehicle rather than by retail forex traders.

Interest Rate Swaps – A financial interest rate contracts whereby the buyer and seller swap interest rate exposure over the term of the contract. The most common swap contract is the fixed-to-float swap whereby the swap buyer receives a floating rate from the swap seller, and the swap seller receives a fixed rate from the swap buyer. Other types of swap include fixed-to-fixed and float-to-float. Interest rate swaps are more often utilized by commercials to re-allocate interest rate risk exposure. Foreign Exchange Hedging Policy

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Chatham Financial: Foreign Currency Hedging


Chatham is the world’s largest independent provider of foreign currency risk advisory services. After assessing a client’s risks, objectives and constraints, we help identify the various tools that address the risks — whether foreign currency forward contracts, options, collars, cross currency swaps or a wide range of other risk management solutions.

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Foreign Exchange Rates

Foreign Exchange Rates

Foreign exchange rates are very important in the well being of the whole world’s economy as well as those of individuals, companies and central banks of many countries. They are defined as the value of one currency in terms of another. Even though foreign exchange rates are very important pieces of information that should be known by everyone, this is usually far from the case.

One thing that many people wonder about is the criteria used in deducting the foreign exchange rate of one currency against another. For example the euro currently has a higher foreign exchange rate than the dollar and this means that any quantity of dollar will be equivalent to a lesser quantity of the European currency.

There are two main methods used to deduct the foreign exchange rate of a currency namely fixed method and floating method.

The fixed method of foreign exchange rate deduction is the practice of a country’s central bank announcing a stable figure as the official foreign exchange rate of their currency. This method is very popular among countries such as India where its central bank sets an official figure for their currency and tries to maintain that figure by actively trading in its currency so its predetermined rate will not be at the mercy of the forces in the currency markets. The specific foreign exchange figure is arrived at after a critical comparison with major world currencies such as the Euro and US dollar.

The floating method of foreign exchange rate deduction is the most popular method in many countries around the world. There is usually limited governmental interference and the price of a currency is basically deducted from how popular a specific currency is and the amount of money people are willing to pay for it. This is usually created by the good old forces of marketing known as demand and supply. However this method can make the foreign exchange rate of a currency very volatile due to the high influence of rumors and speculation on the rates which could be created artificially by an unscrupulous group of people for their own benefits.

Read More Articles At:

LiveForeignExchangeRates.com

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Why Hedge Foreign Currency Risk?

Why Hedge Foreign Currency Risk?

International commerce has rapidly increased as the internet has provided a new and more transparent marketplace for individuals and entities alike to conduct international business and trading activities. Significant changes in the international economic and political landscape have led to uncertainty regarding the direction of foreign exchange rates. This uncertainty leads to volatility and the need for an effective vehicle to hedge foreign exchange rate risk and/or interest rate changes while, at the same time, effectively ensuring a future financial position. 

Each entity and/or individual that has exposure to foreign exchange rate risk will have specific foreign exchange hedging needs and this website can not possibly cover every existing foreign exchange hedging situation. Therefore, we will cover the more common reasons that a foreign exchange hedge is placed and show you how to properly hedge foreign exchange rate risk.

Foreign Exchange Rate Risk Exposure – Foreign exchange rate risk exposure is common to virtually all who conduct international business and/or trading.

Buying and/or selling of goods or services denominated in foreign currencies can immediately expose you to foreign exchange rate risk. If a firm price is quoted ahead of time for a contract using a foreign exchange rate that is deemed appropriate at the time the quote is given, the foreign exchange rate quote may not necessarily be appropriate at the time of the actual agreement or performance of the contract. Placing a foreign exchange hedge can help to manage this foreign exchange rate risk.

Interest Rate Risk Exposure – Interest rate exposure refers to the interest rate differential between the two countries’ currencies in a foreign exchange contract. The interest rate differential is also roughly equal to the “carry” cost paid to hedge a forward or futures contract. As a side note, arbitragers are investors that take advantage when interest rate differentials between the foreign exchange spot rate and either the forward or futures contract are either to high or too low. In simplest terms, an arbitrager may sell when the carry cost he or she can collect is at a premium to the actual carry cost of the contract sold. Conversely, an arbitrager may buy when the carry cost he or she may pay is less than the actual carry cost of the contract bought. Either way, the arbitrager is looking to profit from a small price discrepancy due to interest rate differentials.

Foreign Investment / Stock Exposure – Foreign investing is considered by many investors as a way to either diversify an investment portfolio or seek a larger return on investment(s) in an economy believed to be growing at a faster pace than investment(s) in the respective domestic economy. Investing in foreign stocks automatically exposes the investor to foreign exchange rate risk and speculative risk. For example, an investor buys a particular amount of foreign currency (in exchange for domestic currency) in order to purchase shares of a foreign stock. The investor is now automatically exposed to two separate risks. First, the stock price may go either up or down and the investor is exposed to the speculative stock price risk. Second, the investor is exposed to foreign exchange rate risk because the foreign exchange rate may either appreciate or depreciate from the time the investor first purchased the foreign stock and the time the investor decides to exit the position and repatriates the currency (exchanges the foreign currency back to domestic currency). Therefore, even if a speculative profit is achieved because the foreign stock price rose, the investor could actually net lose money if devaluation of the foreign currency occurred while the investor was holding the foreign stock (and the devaluation amount was greater than the speculative profit). Placing a foreign exchange hedge can help to manage this foreign exchange rate risk.

Hedging Speculative Positions – Foreign currency traders utilize foreign exchange hedging to protect open positions against adverse moves in foreign exchange rates, and placing a foreign exchange hedge can help to manage foreign exchange rate risk. Speculative positions can be hedged via a number of foreign exchange hedging vehicles that can be used either alone or in combination to create entirely new foreign exchange hedging strategies. 

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Forex Trading 1985 3/3

On June 4, 1985 the Enterprise cameras focused on the international currency market. Three traders, one each in New York, London and Hong Kong, are followed through one typical day. The stress, the responsibilities and the dedication of each man is evident as they work through a day of trading in Pounds Sterling, US Dollars and German Marks.

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